Gender pay gap

80% of UK companies and public sectors organisations pay women less than men.

Read more


Equilibrium is a state of balance in an economy, and can be applied in a number of contexts. In elementary micro-economics, market equilibrium price is the price that equates demand and supply in a particular market. In this situation the market 'clears' at the equilibrium price - everything that is taken to market by producers is taken out of the market by consumers. This situation is commonly referred to as 'partial' equilibrium.

In introductory macro-economics, national income is in equilibrium when aggregate demand (AD) equals aggregate supply (AS). 

Disequilibrium occurs when a variable changes to create an excess of demand or supply, causing a 'movement' to a new equilibrium position. A sudden change is called an economic shock.

General equilibrium theory attempts to show how all markets move towards a co-ordinated equilibrum - this situation was first described by French 19th century economist Leon Walras.

Micro-economic equilibrium


Macro-economic equilibrium

national income equilibrium

WTO rules

What exactly is the 'most favoured nation' rule?

Read more
Read more
Model agencies collude to fix rates

Regulators find leading model agencies guilty of price fixing.

Read more
Customs unions

Costs and benefits of customs unions.

Read more
New materials

Multiple choice papers for Paper Three.

Read more
Savings ratio

Savings ratio falls to lowest level on record.

Read more