Gender pay gap

80% of UK companies and public sectors organisations pay women less than men.

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Substitution effect - definition

The substitution effect is the effect on demand of a price change caused by a switch to, or away from, a cheaper or more expensive alternative.

substitution effect diagram

Together with the 'income effect', the substitution effect provides a simple explanation of why a demand curve typically sloped downwards.

WTO rules

What exactly is the 'most favoured nation' rule?

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Model agencies collude to fix rates

Regulators find leading model agencies guilty of price fixing.

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Customs unions

Costs and benefits of customs unions.

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New materials

Multiple choice papers for Paper Three.

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Savings ratio

Savings ratio falls to lowest level on record.

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