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Global shocks

A significant problem resulting from globalisation is the increased risk to national economies from shocks over which they have little control. Globalisation means that economies are increasingly interconnected, and interdependent, and while this generates long term gains in terms of trade, growth and jobs, it also presents economies with risks and challenges.

One risk is that a shock originating in one part of the world, or in one industry or market, can quickly ripple across a country, a region, or the whole global economy, leaving economic turmoil in its wake. By their nature, shocks are often unexpected, but policies can be adopted which help to reduce the impact of shocks.

Types of shock:

  1. Temporary shocks,  such as a terrorist attack, or a one-off change in a commodity price, like a rise in wheat prices, which quickly return to the 'normal', long run trend.

  2. Permanent shocks,  such as an oil shock, which permanently alters the market for motor vehicles. Some economists argue that the financial crisis of 2008-09, and the resultant impact on the motor industry, will kick start a more carbon neutral approach to vehicle design.

  3. Policy induced shocks,  such as reducing interest rates or increasing the money supply too quickly, creating an inflationary shock.

  4. Asymmetric shocks, which are those affecting one region or one industry more severely than another. For example, the collapse of the Argentinean peso on the 1990s affected Spain more than the rest of Europe.

  5. Symmetric shocks, which are shocks which affect all regions or industries in the same way.

  6. Financial shocks, which are those starting in the financial markets, such as a sudden change in the exchange rate, or the collapse of a major credit bank. See also: Banking crisis.

  7. Supply side shocks, which may be related to costs, such as a sudden increase in commodity prices, or related to changes in physical supply, such as labour strikes, or crop failures.

  8. Demand side shocks, which are sudden changes affecting aggregate demand (AD), such as a collapse in consumer confidence leading to a fall in household spending, or a sudden fall in house prices creating a negative wealth effect.

In many cases, specific shocks can exhibit a number of these features.